Angular Limb Deformities - Best Surgical & Medical Treatment


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3 Hours

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Thu, 01 January, 1970

Registration Deadline

Thu, 01 January, 1970




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Veterinary Partners


Recorded on: 18th August 2020


Alan Ruggles   VMD, DACVS – Rood & Riddle Equine Hospital, KY, USA
Angus Adkins   BVSc, FANZCVS – Scone Equine Hospital, Australia
Matt Smith  BVetMed, DECVS, DEO, MRCVS – Newmarket Equine Hospital, UK


Jessica Kidd  BA, DVM, CertES(Orth), DECVS, MRCVS – Consultant, UK



The panellists will debate which conservative and surgical treatment is most effective for angular limb deformities, depending on age of the foal and which joint(s) is/are affected. ALD in older horses will also be discussed, as well as current knowledge on the effects of ALD on future athletic performance. Over the 3 hours the following controversial discussion points will be debated:

Deciding on the most appropriate therapy:

  • Should conservative treatments always be attempted first?
  • What are the important factors in deciding whether surgery should be performed (NB for each anatomical site)
  • Are we operating too many foals to improve sales prospects?
  • Management in horses not intended for racing or public auction.

Surgical Technique & Decision Making:

  • What is the best timing for surgical treatment?
  • Is it worth operating yearlings or even older animals with ALD?
  • Is a single screw just as good as screws & wires?
  • What size/type of screw do you use for fetlocks, knees and hocks and what are the advantages and disadvantages.
  • Tips to improve cosmetic outcomes.
  • What other methods are available for placing a two screw and “wire” bridge.
  • What is the likelihood of getting a “permanent bridge” (physeal collapse) in a weanling/yearling when using a single screw technique?
  • Complications of angular limb surgery.
  • How to deal with bone overgrowth.
  • Does screw size affect the likelihood of seeing a bony blemish on weanling or yearling sale radiographs.
  • Is it worth putting a screw in an outwardly rotated front fetlock?

Post-Operative Management:

  • What are the major contributors to surgical site infection?
  • What exercise/rest regimes post-operatively are best?
  • What bandaging techniques and material should be used?
  • How do you time the removal of transphyseal screws?
  • Is surgical over correction of ALD a recognised complication?
  • What is your liability to the owner and insurer when things go wrong.
  • What information is available on the effect on racing prognosis?
  • Management for long term outcomes.

Jessica Kidd has been involved in equine surgery for more than 20 years. She is an RCVS and European Recognised Specialist in Equine Surgery.

She attended veterinary school at Purdue University in the States followed by two years in mixed practice in New England. After this she completed an internship at a referral racehorse hospital in Ocala, Florida and then returned to the UK to complete an equine surgery residency at the University of Bristol. This was followed by time as a surgery lecturer at the University of Glasgow’s veterinary school followed by holding the position of the University Equine Surgeon at the University of Cambridge. She then spent seven years in private practice as the surgeon at the Valley Equine Hospital in Lambourn, Berkshire which had a hospital population of racehorses, performance horses and pleasure horses and is currently an external surgical consultant to multiple practices.

She has presented veterinary presentations at national and international meetings in over twenty countries, has taught numerous CPD courses for other veterinary surgeons on specialised equine subjects and was an examiner for the RCVS certificates six times. She was the keynote speaker at both the New Zealand Equine Veterinary and the South African Veterinary Association Congresses in 2019.

She holds the RCVS certificate in Equine Surgery (Orthopaedics), is a Diplomate of the European College of Veterinary Surgeons, and is an RCVS and European recognised specialist in Equine Surgery. Her areas of interest are both soft tissue and orthopaedic surgery, diagnostic imaging and investigation of lameness cases as well as neonatology and care of the pregnant mare.

She is the chief editor of The Atlas of Equine Ultrasonography which is currently being prepared in a second edition and has contributed chapters to Auer’s “Equine Surgery” and “Equine Neck and Back Pathology”. She is a keen motorcyclist and one of the original members of the Horsepower CPD team which has already raised over £750,000 for charities to provide ongoing funding for both working equids and disabled children.

Dr. Ruggles, who specializes in orthopedic surgery and lameness, graduated from The New York State College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University in 1987.  He completed an internship and residency in large animal surgery at New Bolton Center at the University of Pennsylvania.  He remained at New Bolton Center as a Lecturer in Surgery until joining faculty at Ohio State University in 1992.  He joined Rood & Riddle Equine Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky in March of 1999 and is a partner there. He is active in the American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) and AOVET.  Dr. Ruggles is a member of the AAEP “On Call” media program. He has been Co- Chairman of the annual AO Equine Courses on Fracture Repair given in Columbus Ohio since 1996. 

After completing his surgical residency, Matt returned to Newmarket to work for the referrals department of Newmarket Equine Hospital in 2006. Matt is interested in all areas of equine surgery, but with particular emphasis on orthopaedic surgery, and more specifically arthroscopy and fracture repair.

Matt has presented on numerous occasions both nationally and internationally, and published his work in peer reviewed scientific journals. He has also taught on post-graduate courses in surgery, fracture repair, diagnostic techniques and arthroscopy. Matt has also maintained an active role in undergraduate teaching, and since 2006 he has held the post of Special Lecturer in Equine Surgery at the School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham.

Angus grew up in Tasmania keen to an equine surgeon from about 14 years of age. He graduated from the University of Melbourne in 1989. He worked in racetrack practice at Flemington for 3 years before moving to Murdoch University in Western Australia as a resident in equine medicine and surgery.

Angus gained Membership of the Australian and New Zealand College of Veterinary Scientists in Equine Surgery in 1995 and Fellowship of the ANZCVS in 2002, allowing him to be registered as Specialist in Equine Surgery.

Angus joined the Scone Equine Hospital in 1997 and his work involves surgery, radiology, conformation and lameness evaluation in stud, performance and pleasure horses. His surgical interests include fracture repair, arthroscopy, laparoscopy and all orthopaedic procedures.

Angus is currently 1 of 2 nominated veterinarians in Australia who assess the suitability of thoroughbred racehorses for export to Hong Kong. He is a member of the EVA’s education subcommittee, a keen publisher of scientific articles in veterinary journals and passionate mentor of Interns and young veterinarians. He has presented over 80 lectures at veterinary conferences around the world, including England, Germany, Belgium, Hong Kong and Australia. He was a key-note speaker at the 2015 Bain Fallon Memorial lectures.

Angus is a past Treasurer of the EVA, past Chairman of the Equine Chapter of the ANZCVS, and a previous examiner for Membership and Fellowship of the ANZCVS.

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